This course examines the evolution of the political institutions and social structures of the Roman Republic from its foundation to its end. Some of the areas explored are the development of the Republican government system, particularly the function of the magistrates, the senate and the assemblies, the role of the elite and the people in the governing of the state and the causes and effects of change in the Republic’s governance over time, the acquisition and growth of empire and the political, social and economic consequences of Roman expansion, and the eventual failure of Republican institutions and traditions. Within the context of the political history social, economic and cultural themes will also be examined. Attention will be paid as well to problems in historiography and the analysis of primary source material, both literary (all in translation) and non-literary.